Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Lets Take a Peek How The Intel Processor Is Made

 Lets Take a Peek How The Intel Processor Is Made

Sand, a quarter of its parts formed from silicon, the most abundant chemical element on earth after oxygen. Sand (mainly quartz), has a high percentage of silicon in the form of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) and the sand is essential to producing semiconductor.
After obtaining materials from sand and separating the silicon, the excess material is removed. Then, the silicon is purified in multiple steps to achieve quality 'semiconductor manufacturing quality', or so-called 'electronic grade silicon'. The resulting purity is so great that 'electronic grade silicon' can only have one 'alien atom' in every one billion silicon atoms. After the silicon purification step is completed, phase silicon foundries. From the picture above, we can see how one big crystal emerging from the purified silicon melt. The result is a single crystal called 'ingot'.
Single ' Ingot ' crystals  is formed from ' electronic grade silicon ' . A single large ' Ingot ' roughly 100 kilograms or 220 pounds , and has a silicon purity of 99.9999 percent .
After that , ' Ingot ' entered the stage of incision . ' Ingot ' in thin slices to produce a ' silicon discs ' , called the ' wafers ' . Some ' Ingot ' can stand up to 5 feet . ' Ingot ' also has a different diameter depending on how big the size of the ' wafers ' are required . CPU time is now usually requires ' wafers ' to the size of 300 mm .
Once sliced ​​, ' wafers ' polished until they have flawless , mirror-like surface into a very , very smooth . Intel does not produce its own ' Ingots ' and ' wafers ' , instead purchases of companies ' third-party ' . Intel processors with 45nm technology , using the ' wafers ' to the size of 300mm ( 12 inch ) , whereas the first time Intel makes chips , Intel uses ' wafers ' to the size of 50mm ( 2 inch ) .
Blue liquid as seen in the picture above, is the 'Photo Resist' as used in the 'Film' in photography. 'Wafers' played in this stage so that the layers can be uniformly smooth and thin.
In this phase, 'Photo Resist' illuminated from the 'Ultra Violet'. Chemical reactions that occur in this process is similar to the 'film' camera the moment you press the shutter button.

The strongest area or stand in the 'Wafer' be flexible and fragile due to the effects of light of 'Ultra Violet'. Lighting to be managed by using a protective function as stencils. When exposed to 'Ultra Violet' beam, create a protective layer circuit pattern. Processor in the making, is essential and key to repeat this process over and over until the layers above the bottom layer, and so on.

Lens in the middle serves to shrink the light into a small focus.
From the picture above, we can overview what if the fruit 'Transistor' we see with the naked eye. Transistor acts as a switch, controlling the flow of electrical current in the 'Chip' computers. Intel researchers have developed transistors so small that about 30 million 'Transistors' can fit on the head of the 'Pin'.
Once exposed to light 'Ultra Violet', the 'Photo Resist' absolutely devastated. This reveals a pattern of 'Photo Resist' are made ​​by the mask. The beginnings of 'transistors', 'interconnects', and matters relating to electricity begins here.
Although the field was destroyed, layer 'Photo Resist' still protecting material 'Wafer' so it will not be etched. Areas that were exposed will be etched away with chemicals.
Once etched, the layers 'Photo Resist' is removed and the desired shape becomes visible.
'Photo Resist' re used and irradiated with light 'Ultra Violet'. 'Photo Resist' is illuminated then washed before stepping to the next stage, the washing process is called 'Ion Doping', the process by which particles are combined to ion 'Wafer', so that the chemical properties of silicon was changed, so that the CPU can control electrical currents.
Through a process called 'ion implantation' (part of the process of ion doped) silicon area on the 'wafers' bombarded with ions. Ions are implanted in the silicon wafer to alter the way silicon with electricity. Ions are propelled onto the surface 'Wafer' at high speed. The electric field accelerates the ions to a speed of over 300,000 km / hour (roughly 185,000 mph)
After ion implantation, 'Photo Resist' is removed, and the material is colored green in the image is now embedded by 'Alien Atoms'
This transistor is almost complete. Three holes have been etched into the insulation layer (magenta color) which is above the transistor. Three holes will be filled with copper, which serves to connect the transistor to another transistor.
'Wafers' entered into 'copper sulphate solution' at this level. Copper ions deposited into the transistor through a process called 'Electroplating'. The copper ions travel from the positive terminal (anode) to the negative terminal (cathode).
Copper ions have a thin layer on the surface of the 'wafers'.
Excess material is grinded, leaving a very thin layer of copper.
Well've started the complicated things. Many metal layer is made to interconnect a variety of transistors. How these connections are connected, it is determined by the architecture and design teams that develop the capabilities of each processor. While computer chips look extremely flat, they may actually have over 20 layers to form complex circuitry. If you look with a magnifying glass, you will see an intricate network of circuit lines and transistors that look futuristic, 'Multi-Layered Highway System'.
It's just a super small sample of the 'wafer' that will go through the first stage of testing capabilities. In this stage test patterns are fed into every single chip and the response from the chip monitored and compared to 'The Right Answer'.
Once the test results showed that the 'Wafer' pass, 'Wafer' cut into a section called 'Dies'. Take a look at the process that was really complicated, but the result was small.
'Dies' that pass the test, will be included into the next stage of 'Packaging'. 'Dies' is not passed, discarded useless. There is the a funny thing a few years ago, Intel made ​​key of 'Dies' which does not pass this. And there is sale on ebay, interested to buy it ?
This is a picture of the 'Die', which had been cut in the previous process. 'Die' in this image is 'Die' from the Intel Core i7 Processor.
The bottom layer , ' Die ' , and ' silver heatspreader ' fitted together to form the ' Processor ' . Green bottom layer , is used to establish power and ' Mechanical Interface ' for the processor to interact with the PC system . ' Silver heatspreader ' is ' Thermal Interface ' which cooling solution is applied , will keep the processor cool during operation .
' Microprocessor ' is the most complex products in the world . In fact , to make it require hundreds of stages and that we have described earlier is just that important.
During the last test for the Processor , Processor in test characteristics , such as power consumption and maximum frequency .
 Based on the results of the previous test, Processor grouped with the same abilities. This process is called the 'binning', 'binning' is determined from the maximum frequency of processors, then stack Processor divided and sold according to stable specifications.
Processor that has been packaged and tested, go to the factory (for example purchased by Toshiba as an ingredient) or retail sale (for example at computer stores). - Lets Take a Peek How The Intel Processor Is Made

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